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[alomone labs] Making Sure Microglia Are Microglia

관리자 2023.12.08 13:56 조회 200 추천 1

Making Sure Microglia Are Microglia 


If you use an in vitro model of microglia and human disease, you need that model to reflect what you see in vivo. Microglia can be derived from hiPSCs, though the process is long and tough. But a new process could change that. This new work rapidly dervies microglia from monocytes. And the validation data looks great. Want to see just how much these microglia are like microglia? 

Making Sure Microglia Are Microglia

By Alomone Team • December 2023

Microglial dysfunction is a factor in neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. To better understand any pathological contribution of microglia, you need a model that mimics what you see in humans. Currently, these models may come from human induced pluripotent stem cell(hiPSC)-derived microglia. But differentiating hiPSCs into microglia is challenging and often slow, making them unsuitable for high throughput clinical trials. There’s also the issue that induced microglia (iMGs) don’t always behave like microglia do in vivo

However, new work has generated iMGs from monocytes and validated these immunologically, behaviorally, and genetically. The iMGs were generated in under two weeks; a significant reduction from the 40 days it often takes to derive microglia from hiPSCs. The resulting iMGs could have real potential in understanding neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

Microglia that look like microglia

The first step in validating these iMGs was assessing their morphology. Under phase-contrast, iMGs started branching at day 5, and by day 10–14 they looked like typical resting microglia do, with a small cell soma and multiple branches. Induced macrophages (iMacs) also had the typical “fried-egg” shape with enlarged circular cell bodies. 

Turning their attention to microglia-specific markers, the researchers looked at transmembrane protein 119 (TMEM119) and purinergic receptor P2RY12. These are deemed unique microglia markers but are absent from macrophages. Using anti-TMEM119 and Alomone’s Anti-P2Y12 Receptor (extracellular) antibody (#APR-020), it was clear that TMEM119 and P2RY12 markers were expressed by iMG cells but absent from iMacs (Figure 1) as expected. This nicely illustrates how TMEM119 and P2RY12 can be used to distinguish iMG cells from monocyte-derived macrophages.


Reagents to help your research

If you are interested in studying microglia, we have several reagents that could help.